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2007 Key Stage 2 English SATs Reading Booklet On Dangerous Ground (filename "ks2-english-2007-reading-booklet.pdf") includes:

ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 15/1/07 8:18 pm Page 1 on dangerous ground Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk 11:15 pm Page 2 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:15 pm Page 3 CONTE NTS VOLCANOES introduction 4 D ISASTER S TRIKES account of an eruption at Pompeii 6 P OMPEII TODAY tourism in Pompeii 8 postcards from Pompeii 9 A DAY IN P OMPEII advertisements for activities in and around Pompeii 10 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 3 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:16 pm Page 4 VOLCANOE S Eruption of Vesuvius ot far under the surface of the Earth, it is hot. The further down you go inside the Earth, the hotter it becomes. Deep, deep down below our feet, it is so hot that even the rock melts and is nine times hotter than boiling water. In places where the Earth’s surface is weak, this liquid rock can bubble up and burst through. These weak spots are the world’s volcanoes. N Volcanoes fall into three groups, depending on how active they are. Volcanoes which are erupting are called active. Volcanoes which show no signs of eruption are known as dormant or sleeping and, if they remain dormant for tens of thousands of years, they may be described as extinct. Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 4 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:16 pm Page 5 When we hear of a volcano erupting, we think of a tall cone-shaped mountain sending out clouds of ash and liquid rock called lava. In fact, volcanoes can be of different types: some are broad and flat, many are under the sea, some pour out streams of red-hot lava, some create an explosion that can be heard thousands of miles away, while others are quieter and ‘gentler’. There are some volcanoes that can cause massive destruction although they produce little or no lava at all. The most well-known of this type is Mount Vesuvius in Italy. This is what happened in the famous eruption of Vesuvius, which destroyed the town of Pompeii over 1900 years ago. THE ERUPTION OF VESUVIUS, AD 79 ash and hot gas Mt Vesuvius town of Pompeii At midday on 24th August, Vesuvius erupted, sending a cloud of ash, pumice and other rock 20 kilometres into the air. This covered Pompeii in 2 metres of rubble but it did not kill anyone. After midnight, the cloud collapsed. It sent a surge of ash and hot gas mainly down the western slope of the mountain, at a speed of 160 kilometres per hour. Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk Early the next morning another surge of blistering ash and rock swept down the slopes. This time it covered the town of Pompeii and burnt and suffocated everyone there. http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 5 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:16 pm Page 6 DISASTER STRI KES U NFAMILIAR N AMES Pliny - Plin-ee Pompeii - Pom-pay Tacitus - Tass-i-tus Vesuvius - Ves-oo-vee-us Pliny n the first century AD, in the period of the Roman Empire, Vesuvius had been dormant for hundreds of years. The mountain was green as farmers grew fig and olive trees on the slopes of the volcano and the local people had become used to the tremors of earthquakes from time to time. I In the summer of AD 79 there had been more rumbling than usual but in the town of Pompeii and in the whole area surrounding the volcano, most people went about their daily business. One of them, a boy called Pliny, was 17 at the time. When the volcano erupted, he watched from a nearby town as the earth shook and a black cloud descended over the area. Pliny’s uncle, the commander of a nearby naval port, also saw the unusual cloud forming above Mount Vesuvius. He was not content to stand by and watch. He wanted to get a closer look and set off to investigate with a scribe to whom he could dictate his observations. As he was leaving, he received a message from his friend Rectina asking if he would help her. So he set out with several ships to observe the volcano and try to rescue the people. Years later, Tacitus, a historian, was collecting information about the event. Pliny wrote to him giving a vivid account of what he had seen and heard. Not only was he an eye-witness to the disaster, but Pliny also heard the stories told by survivors, some of whom had been rescued by his uncle. The following is an extract from Pliny’s letter to Tacitus: Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 6 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:16 pm Page 7 As my uncle was leaving the house, he was handed a message from Rectina, whose house was at the foot of the mountain and whose escape was impossible except by boat. She was terrified of the danger threatening her and implored him to rescue her from her fate. He changed his plans, and what he had begun in a spirit of inquiry, he completed as a hero. He gave orders for the ships to be launched and went on board himself with the intention of bringing help to many more people besides Rectina, for this lovely stretch of coast was thickly populated. He hurried to the place which everyone else was hastily leaving, steering his course straight for the danger zone. He was entirely fearless, describing each moment of the eruption to be noted down exactly as he observed it. Ashes were already falling, hotter and thicker as the ships drew near, followed by bits of pumice and blackened stones, charred and cracked by the flames. Then, suddenly they were in shallow water, and the shore was blocked by the rubble from the mountain. For a moment my uncle wondered whether to turn back, but when the helmsman advised this, my uncle refused, telling him that Fortune stood by the courageous ... translated from Latin Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk Later in his letter to Tacitus, Pliny records that his uncle died in the eruption. http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 7 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:16 pm Page 8 POMPEII TODAY POMPEII UNDER THREAT AGAIN? LOST AND FOUND n that fateful day in AD 79, the town nearest the volcano was completely smothered under a layer of ash and rock. This unusual blanket protected the remains of the town of Pompeii for hundreds of years. Gradually it has been uncovered and many fascinating discoveries have been made. By studying these remains experts have found out about life in the area near the volcano and about the day the volcano erupted. They found scenes preserved exactly as the people had left them: tables laid for meals with loaves of bread, baskets of eggs and nuts, all now solidified. O oday, thousands of tourists flock to see the remains of this unique town, trapped in time. People are fascinated by the opportunity to see what life was like two thousand years ago. Many also make the difficult climb up Mount Vesuvius to peer into the smouldering crater. T The huge number of visitors who visit Pompeii every year is bringing a large set of problems. Parts of the ruins are being worn away just by the large numbers of people who pass through. Furthermore, not all visitors treat the site with respect. There has been vandalism, some treasures have been stolen and some people just don’t realise the danger of clambering over the remains – both to themselves and to the ruins. One archaeologist has gone as far as to describe what is happening now as ‘the second death of Pompeii’. On the facing page you can read two different postcards, written by tourists who visited Pompeii on the same day. These were the messages they sent home. Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 8 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:16 pm Page 9 Italy, May 18th Dear All, et it! Mount Nature peaceful? Forg threatening Vesuvius is the most sterday, it thing I’ve ever seen. Ye g clouds of was huffing and puffin ed to visitors. smoke. So it was clos ii. The ruins Today we were in Pompe as though are impressive and feel just left. the Romans have only the ruins will Mind you, I don’t think an idiot be here for ever. I saw g a piece of hacking off and stealin otos. mosaic. I only took ph Cheers, Neena Pompeii, 19th May Had a great day at Pompeii yesterday. Saw Roman villas, paintings, pots, even food preserved from the day the volcano covered the town. Climbed up one of the walls to get a bird’s-eye view – bit wobbly, but worth the effort. Had a great piece of luck – found a loose piece of mosaic tile and slipped it in my pocket as a souvenir – no one noticed. See you soon, Lisa Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 9 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:17 pm Page 10 A DAY IN POMPEII ail us by R suvi a isit Ve V , only urney e jo f! uniqu ii itsel s this mis Pompe m it ❈ Don’t ip fro ort tr very summ sh e th railway to untain ater ❈ vel by mo tra ormous cr ❈ the en peer into ion ❈ ❈ ano in act lc re see the vo town squa ❈ mpeii r from Po y hou ! tures ever amera ar your c ❈ dep rget ❈ n’t fo p.s. do Not sure w Not sure where to go? hat to see? Why not tr yL uci guided wa o’s all-inclusive lking tour We’ll s ? how you the best of Pom peii. Highlights include: Museum vis it • The ho use of the sil The central ver wedding baths • De signing your Dressing up own mosaic in a toga • Activities fo r children GOOD VAL UE – discounts for students , senior citiz children and ens, families! Depar Main Gate, 1 ts: 0am and Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk 2pm http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 10 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 31/1/07 11:17 pm BAY OF Page 11 N Mount APLES Vesuviu s is the at the USEUM world’s Bay o m f Nap inform les Mu ost studied v ation a olcano! seum, bou of inter H we ha est from t the formatio ve com ere n of vo Pompe bined lcanoes ii and t Our de with ob he surr tailed e oundin jects xhibits mounta g area. show t in, and he laye a small rs -scale r eplica o of rock with in the f the to wn of P ompeii . ... brin ging th e past back to life M n town pizzas i t s and The bes of pizza . lection wide se modest prices ra We offe ta meals at ailable. pas ishes av ian d here. Vegetar atmosp riendly ness – f to 11pm usi eum! Family b Open 11am he mus rom t corner f he Round t Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 11 ODG Reader March 06 275371.qxp 15/1/07 8:22 pm Page 12 Sourced from and Curriculum © QualificationsSATs-Papers.co.uk Authority 2007 12 QCA/06/2798 (Pupil pack) http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 275371 QCA/06/2795 (Mark schemes pack)