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2012 Key Stage 2 - Level 6 English SATs Reading Stimulus Reflections on Water (filename "ks2-english-2012-level-6-reading-stimulus-booklet.pdf") includes:

Reflections on Water Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 1 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:36:54 Contents The Great Stink of London pages 4–5 Daughter of the River pages 6–7 Bath times with the Romans pages 8–9 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 2 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:37:12 Introduction All human beings need water, not only to drink but also to keep clean and healthy. It can be a struggle to find and keep a supply of clean water, especially in cities. These texts are about the central role water plays in people’s lives. Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 3 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:37:26 This is an introduction to Stephen Halliday’s book The Great Stink of London. During Victorian times, there were serious problems with water supply and sanitation in London. Crisis point was reached in the summer of 1858. The Great Stink of London In the mid-19th century, Britain was gripped by the fear of cholera, a highly infectious and deadly disease. When cholera struck Hamburg in Germany, the British government grew alarmed that this latest outbreak might spread to Britain. They decided to create a special committee to deal with the expected epidemic. However, the epidemic never happened because of the work of one man: Sir Joseph Bazalgette. At that time, London’s sewage flowed straight into the River Thames. From here it leaked into adjacent springs, wells and other sources of drinking water. This was the root cause of cholera, a waterborne disease. Contemporary accounts describe London being crowded with men, women and children struggling to survive in terrible conditions. In 1849, one journalist reported that the air had ‘the smell of a graveyard, and a feeling of nausea comes over anyone unaccustomed to it.’ About the Thames, he wrote, ‘heavy bubbles now and then rise up in the water, which is covered with a scum like an encrusted cobweb. In it float large masses of noxious, tangled weed and against the posts of the bridges are swollen carcasses of dead animals.’ 4 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 4 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:37:45 In the summer of 1858, the stench from the Thames was so bad that Members of Parliament fled from the rooms overlooking the river. The Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, rushed from the debating chamber, handkerchief to nose. The press called the crisis The Great Stink. Disraeli introduced to Parliament a Bill that gave Bazalgette the authority to construct the sewers which he had designed; it was rushed through within sixteen days and Bazalgette began work immediately. By 1874 Bazalgette had completed his ingenious scheme. He designed a grand system of drains and sewers to carry foul water to new pumping stations and holding tanks, and new embankments to make the river cleaner. In all, he built 1,182 miles of sewers, four pumping stations and two major water treatment works which are still operating to this day. Bazalgette did much else besides. He designed and created many famous London streets and several magnificent bridges across the River Thames, including Tower Bridge, a present day London landmark. In fact, Bazalgette created more of London than anyone else before or since. But his greatest claim to fame is the system of sewers, which banished cholera forever and which still serve the capital city to this day. 5 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 5 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:38:08 This is an extract from the autobiography of Hong Ying, where she writes about her life as a child in China during the 1960s. She lived with her family on the banks of the River Yangtze. Daughter of the River My house was on the southern bank of the Yangtze. By standing on the ridge in front of my house, I could see where the Yangtze and Jialong rivers meet. An assortment of buildings on the surrounding hills looks like a jumble of children’s building blocks. Quays dot the riverbanks, steamships tie up between the quays. Cable cars, dripping rust, crawl slowly up and down the slopes. Dark clouds blanket the river at dawn, and at dusk, when the sun’s rays slant down on the water before settling behind the hills to the north, a few bursts of sunlight emerge from the dark mist. For us, water was precious. Several hundred families shared a single tap. Queuing up was only part of the problem, for once water came, it was usually a dirty yellow. If we went down to the river to fetch water, a hard sweaty job at best, we had to treat it with bleach to make it fit for drinking or cooking, and it left a metallic taste. Except for times when the running water was turned off, we fetched water from the river only for laundry or to mop the floors. Anyone who has never suffered the heat of this place cannot possibly understand how it burns its way from your heart and clogs up every pore on your body, to lie there baking your skin. Normally there is no wind, but when there is, it’s like adding coal to a fire. That was in the summer. Then when the Yangtze began to rise the water flowed from the higher reaches and hundreds of metres of riverbank would be swallowed up overnight when the flood season arrived. 6 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 6 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:38:42 Once the weather cooled off, the inconvenience of bathing increased. Hot water was particularly scarce, but since we couldn’t afford to go to the public baths, we simply took fewer baths or no baths at all. The winter cold was as oppressive as the summer heat. Our houses weren’t heated and heating materials were virtually nonexistent. Sometimes we simply cocooned ourselves in quilts and lay in bed. At night we bundled up in as many clothes as we could wear and climbed into bed, shivering until morning with freezing hands and feet. I don’t think there was a winter in my childhood when my hands weren’t covered with chilblains that made my fingers look like carrots. For my brother, the river was a source of food. Water from the snowy peaks kept the river temperature icy cold most of the year. Nevertheless, whenever he saw something that even looked like food, he dived in after it: vegetable skins, leafy greens, even melon rinds. Once he had whatever it was in his grasp, he’d swim back to shore and take it home, where mother would wash it, cut out the rotten parts, and throw it in the wok. But he wasn’t always lucky. Most of the time all the river offered up was muddy water and he’d return home empty-handed. 7 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 7 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:39:29 Over 2,000 years ago, the Romans had sophisticated systems for water and drainage in place. This was important as the public baths were more than just a place to keep clean, as Dinah Starkey explains in this article from an educational magazine. Bath times with the Romans Something for everyone Marble or murky water? In Roman times, everyone, men and The baths ranged from the luxurious women, rich and poor, visited the to the downright squalid. There public baths that could be found in were baths panelled with marble every town. The baths played a and set with dazzling mosaics, and central part in people’s daily lives. there were baths where fumes from A visit to the baths was the Roman the furnace overcame the bathers equivalent of a trip to the health and toenail clippings floated in the club: it combined a workout in the murky water. In the more up- gym and beauty treatments with a market establishments, such as the chance to meet friends and do a bit baths of Carcalla in Rome, there of networking. were dozens of columns made from marble and imported stone. The floors and walls gleamed with polished marble panelling in ten different colours, the roof glittered with glass mosaics and there were alcoves for more than a hundred statues. Roman Baths 8 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 8 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:40:07 Working up a sweat Time to relax The Romans began bathing by Those who could afford it might also rubbing perfumed oil into their skin treat themselves to a massage or a and then proceeded to exercise to shave. Sometimes there was a large work up a sweat, for example by pool where bathers could relax running, wrestling or boxing. From before going home. There were even the exercise room bathers then snacks for sale: evidence has been moved through into the tepidarium found that the Romans enjoyed such (the warm room) and from there into delicacies as cutlets, sausages, bread, the caldarium (the hot room) to really cakes, nuts and hog’s fat! sweat out the dirt. After a while, the bathers returned to the tepidarium for the serious business of getting clean by scraping off dirt and sweat with a curved metal strigil. Finally, some bathers could finish off their session with a breathtaking plunge into the ice cold water of the frigidarium (the cold room). Octagonal Frigidarium No fun for the neighbours Seneca, the Roman philosopher, shows that it wasn’t so much fun to live near the baths. “I live right over a public baths. Just imagine the noise. I hear the grunting of the body builders. Then a ball player arrives and begins to count shots. Add the people who like to sing in the bathtub. And the people who jump into the pool with a deafening splash. On top of all this, don’t forget the professional hair remover, forever screeching as he advertises his services. He only shuts up when he starts work – and makes someone else do the yelping! Then there are the drinksellers, the sausage-sellers and the cake-sellers, each with his own special call …” 9 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 9 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:40:32 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 10 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:40:42 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 11 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:40:56 STA/12/5604 ISBN: QCDA/12/5500 978-1-4459-5236-9 Acknowledgements Acknowledgements The Great Stink of London, adapted from The Great Stink of London, adapted from The Great Stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette The Great Stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the Cleansing of the Victorian Metropolis and the Cleansing of the Victorian Metropolis by Stephen Halliday, by Stephen Halliday, publishedPublishing Ltd (2001). Ltd (2001). published by Sutton by Sutton Publishing Daughter of the river, adapted from Daughter of the River: An Autobiography by Hong Ying, Daughter of the River, adapted from published by Bloomsbury (1999). Daughter of the River: An Autobiography by Hong Ying, published test paper solely for the This text has been incorporated into thisby Bloomsbury (1999). purposes of the examination This text in accordance with Section 32(3)test paper solelyDesigns purposes ofAct 1988. has been incorporated in the of the Copyright, for the and Patents the examination No copyright clearance for any other use has Designs and or sought. in accordance with Section 32(3) of the Copyright, been obtained Patents Act 1988. No copyright clearance for any other use has been obtained or sought. © Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency 2011 © Crown copyright 2012 Sourced from SATs-Papers.co.uk L6_Reflections_on_water_2011.indd 12 http://www.SATs-Papers.co.uk 31/01/2012 11:41:06